Study Tips

Types of writing: understand which are the main ones

During preparation for the entrance exam, for the Enem or even selective processes, it is essential to study the different types of essays, understanding the requirements of each one and the differences between them.

It is not enough to have correct writing and respect for spelling and grammar rules. Knowledge about style and textual structure is essential to meet what was requested by the bank and get a good score, after all, this is one of the evaluated criteria — and not following the type of text requested can reset your grade.

Do you know what types of writing exist? To assist in your studies, we list and explain the main modalities charged. Check out!


The dissertation is a type of argumentative writing, in which the author must approach a certain subject through the exposition of ideas, argumentation and his point of view. It is essential to convey credibility and consistency with the arguments and data presented, paying attention to the persuasive format of the speech. The structure must contain:

    • introduction (thesis): the author must present the ideas that will be defended;
    • development: the ideas indicated in the introduction must be developed, convincing the reader based on arguments and concrete data;
    • conclusion (new thesis): the outcome of the text, which must be coherent, based on the arguments used in the writing.

The language should be impersonal and objective, more common in the 3rd person singular and adopting phrases or sentences that are more common. Seriousness is also important, so the ideal is to avoid colloquial terms, slang and gerund in construction.

In Enem , the required essay is of the argumentative-dissertation type. The difference is that it is also required to present a proposal for social intervention to solve the problem presented in the theme.


Narrative texts are those that tell a story, based on real or fictional facts. Newspapers and books, for example, often adopt this model to tell stories that happened.

Fictional narration, on the other hand, is known for storybooks, which are not committed to reality and allow the author to create facts according to his desire and imagination. The elements of this type of writing are:

    • plot;
    • space;
    • characters;
    • time.

The structure is also different. It begins with the introduction (as if it were the introduction), which explains the characters and circumstances of the story.

Then there is the conflict or complication, which is where the text builds up to bring the reader to the climax. This is the point in the narrative where there is a critical moment, which will need an outcome. That part amounts to development.

Finally, the outcome is the solution of the conflict addressed in the development, that is, it is equivalent to the conclusion of the story. In the narrative, the author can adopt the following writing styles:

    • 1st person: character narrator, who participates in the story.
    • 3rd person: observer narrator, who does not participate in the story;
    • 1st and 3rd person: omniscient narrator, does not participate in the story, but can intervene in the narrative as 1st person.

The description is an essay with the objective of representing certain objects, people, places or events with words. The text must contain a detailed narration about a certain subject, so that the reader can create an image in his mind about what was described.

The author’s point of view can be developed in two ways: objective or subjective. The objective description, which is without emotions, with simple and direct language, with the purpose of not allowing more than one interpretation of what was written. The subjective is the one in which the author works the subject in a richer way, expressing emotions and allowing the reader to interpret the text in a broader way.

Because it has the function of conveying an image to the reader, the presence of adjectives and adjectival phrases is constant, to better characterize the item described. The biggest difficulty is that, by its nature, this is a stationary essay, which can make it tedious. Thus, it is important to adopt clear and dynamic language to capture the reader’s attention.


A letter is a text prepared with the aim of communicating with someone. Therefore, it has a sender (author) and a recipient, and must follow this structure:

    • header, with place and date;
    • salutation;
    • body text;
    • signature.

It should present the author’s point of view throughout the body of the text and adopt specific language according to the recipient. If it’s a personal letter, for example, the language can be lighter and more informal.

On the other hand, if addressed to an authority, making requests and claims, the tone should be more formal and present a good ability to argue. Here, it is worth noting that the argumentative letter is the most common in college entrance exams when the board opts for this type of writing.

Journalistic text

The journalistic text is used in news and reports in order to inform the reader about certain events or facts, therefore, it must be clear, objective and impersonal. In general, it mixes elements of narrative and essay writing, with the inclusion of relevant data such as:

  • Dice;
  • characters;
  • motivations;
  • facts.

In addition, despite being a type of writing, the journalistic text can have different categories that must be studied for the entrance exam . Check it out:

    • news:
    • report:
    • editorial;
    • interview;
    • article;
    • chronic.

As a rule, this is not an opinion essay and the author should not include his personal thoughts in the construction, as the objective is to pass on relevant information to the reader. However, in some specific models, such as editorial texts and articles, opinions can be included.

Therefore, when preparing for the essay, it is essential to pay attention to all categories, checking their characteristics, requirements and differences. Thus, during the test you will have more peace of mind to prepare the text according to what is exposed in the problem.

Ready! After knowing the main types of essays, it is important to study them and practice writing to ensure good results in the entrance exam. Thus, you guarantee a place in higher education and better develop your writing skills, which will also be important during college.

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